Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disorders due to absolute or relative lack of insulin. The pancreas is the only organ, weighing 70-100 grams, located in the abdominal cavity in the arch of the duodenum. It plays a key role in the digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It also produces insulin, which regulates carbohydrate metabolism in the body. In the article we will talk about what should consist of food in diabetes mellitus.
Types of diabetes
Doctors distinguish between several types of diabetes, due to the cause and course of the disease:
- insulin-dependent type I diabetes;
- type II diabetes usually occurs later in life, especially in obese patients.
Type I diabetes is usually the result of damage to the pancreas. That is, primary damage to beta cells (those that produce insulin in the pancreas) and an absolute lack in insulin secretion.
The initial signs of type I diabetes are severe thirst and hunger, unexplained weight loss, frequent urination of large amounts of urine, blurred vision, fatigue, chronic infections. In some cases, the onset is accompanied by convulsions, confusion, vague words, loss of consciousness. Type I diabetes mellitus is considered an immunological disease.
Type II diabetes is more common in obese people. The disease can be congenital or acquired and is characterized by a decrease in insulin secretion from the pancreas as well as insulin resistance. This means that even the right amount of insulin in the body is not able to fulfill the task.
The disease is accompanied by excessive thirst and profuse urination, slowly raising blood sugar levels. The patient feels weak and drowsy. The disease often begins in middle-aged and elderly people. However, in recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of young patients with type II diabetes. And an alarming large number of children and adolescents with this condition who are overweight and obese.
Hyperglycemia what is it
Hyperglycemia - blood glucose levels are above normal. Symptoms of hyperglycemia include excessive thirst, dry mouth, urinary frequency, weight loss, excessive drowsiness during the day.
The most common cause of hyperglycemia is undiagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes. In people with diabetes, this situation can occur as a result of insufficient insulin.
Rarely, hyperglycemia is the result of infectious and endocrine diseases (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome). There is a high risk of developing late complications, especially in the cardiovascular system.Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with dysfunction and malfunction of various organs - eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels.
Proper nutrition for diabetes
In the prevention of diabetes, diet is a very important part of therapy. It is necessary to maintain proper blood glucose and lipid levels and optimal blood pressure. A well-chosen diet reduces the risk of developing complications of diabetes and minimizes the risk of developing vascular disease. An appropriate dietary model for diabetes plays an important role in preventing and treating chronic complications of diabetes. Including microvascular complications, retinopathy, nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy and others.
Eating diabetes mellitus is one of the major factors influencing diabetes outcomes.
Sugar is essential for life, but in this case it is better to remove the bowl of sugar! In diabetes, the metabolism of mainly carbohydrates is impaired. People diagnosed with diabetes should limit their intake of sugar or carbohydrates.
- monosaccharides - glucose and fructose are found in fruits and honey;
- disaccharide sucrose is sugar from a sugar bowl;
- polysaccharides - flour products, cakes, biscuits and bread, potatoes, bananas, noodles, garments, pasta, pancakes and more.
Carbohydrates for diabetes
Carbohydrates are part of our diet. Their consumption should cover 55-60% of the total demand. Much depends on the form and structure of the origin of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract are digested and broken down into simple sugars - mainly glucose.
Please note that excess carbohydrates cause the pancreas beta cells to constantly stimulate to produce and secrete insulin.
As sugar levels rise, our pancreas secretes insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter cells. Simple sugar, like glucose, is transported rapidly to cells in about an hour.
Unfortunately, insulin is a hormone that lasts for several hours and does not like to be "idle". Thus, elevated insulin levels cause fluctuations in blood glucose levels and carbohydrate starvation.
A hungry person opens the fridge and starts eating to satisfy the feeling of this hunger. The adrenal glands receive information: fluctuations in blood glucose. All of these reactions are signals that the adrenal glands secrete adrenaline. This creates a vicious cycle leading to stress, depression and autonomic neurosis (neurasthenia).
Therefore, it is advisable to reduce your carbohydrate intake to a minimum. In such a situation, fluctuations in blood glucose levels and excessive production of the hormones insulin and adrenaline do not occur.
Glucose passes through the walls of the digestive tract and with the blood enters various organs, where it is converted and becomes a source of energy. In the absence of sufficient exercise, the need for energy is reduced, glucose is stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver.
When it is excess, glycogen is converted to fat, leading to fatty liver and further accumulation of excess body fat. The metabolic process of glucose is controlled by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas.
Carbohydrates as the main energy material can enter the cell only with the help of insulin, which distributes simple sugar in the body. However, lack of insulin, for example, causes an increased rise in blood sugar levels, followed by heavy cellular metabolism. A general lack of insulin leads to diabetes in children and young people - type I diabetes
Protein in diabetes mellitus
Protein should cover 10-15% of energy needs. A larger amount is needed for children during the growing period, for pregnant women. Most valuable - animal protein is found in lean meats, cottage cheese, eggs and sour milk.
Since our body can produce 56 g of sugar per 100 g of protein, it is also important to limit protein intake. In order not to harm the body, you should eat high quality protein (yellow, meat internal). Sources of vegetable protein are - soy beans, legumes, dark bread made from wholemeal flour.
Diet for what to do and what not to do diabetes mellitus
In the diet for diabetes mellitus, in the first stage of treatment, foods such as egg yolk, butter, sour cream, milk and unsweetened vegetables should be present.
At this time, significantly reduce or eliminate from the diet: egg whites, lean meats, fish, poultry and nuts.
People with diabetes should not eat high-protein meals or snacks in the evening. At night, the body is unable to use it. Because the pancreas does not release enough insulin, blood glucose levels rise in the morning. In this case, a dinner consisting mainly of carbohydrates and fats is recommended.
Fats contain more energy. They can cover only 30% of daily energy consumption. In excess, they contribute to the development of overweight.Spices such as cinnamon, garlic, cloves, turmeric and laurel leaves lower cholesterol and blood glucose levels.
Can diabetics eat fruits and vegetables? Yes, because they are a rich source of vitamins and minerals. Fresh vegetables, including broccoli, are ideal for diabetics as an excellent source of chromium. An onion that can work to release insulin. Peeled potatoes (boiled potatoes raise blood sugar very quickly), asparagus, raw carrots, fresh cucumbers, sauerkraut, tea leaves and garlic leaves.
Vegetables you can eat without significant restrictions:
- fresh and pickled cucumbers;
- raw and sauerkraut;
An excellent anti-diabetic agent - fresh cranberry leaves, which are harvested before the fruit ripens. Blueberries can prevent diabetic retinopathy - Studies have shown noticeable improvements in vision in people suffering from eye diseases during diabetes. This disease leads to changes in the fundus, which significantly impairs blood flow to the eye.
Diabetics who are overweight (BMI over 25) are advised to limit calorie intake to reduce weight.
Glycemic Index of Food
Blood glucose is affected not only by the amount of carbohydrates, but also by their type. Therefore, it is necessary to control the amount and quality of carbohydrates in the diet, but it is also desirable to calculate the glycemic index of the product.
Low GI foods are digested and absorbed slowly, do not increase blood glucose quickly, and do not stimulate insulin secretion. A low GI diet reduces the risk of developing insulin-dependent diabetes.
The higher the GI value of a food, the higher the blood glucose level after consuming that food. Foods with a high GI rise like blood glucose. Slow absorption and gradual increase and decrease in blood sugar after eating low GI foods helps control blood sugar in diabetics. It is best to eat foods that have a GI of less than 60.
GI of foods is significantly lower when consumed in their natural form, i. e. raw and unprocessed.
Diabetics are also advised to abstain from alcohol.